The knight tents in the Middle Ages
The term of the Middle Ages refers in European history to the epoch between the end of antiquity and the beginning of the modern era about 6. to 15. Century. The Middle Ages are divided into three parts: early, high and late Middle Ages.
In the transition from late antiquity to the early Middle Ages broke the political and cultural unity of the Mediterranean-influenced by the Greco-Roman antiquity. While the Byzantine Empire remained intact in the East, the western empire underwent 476. New empires were created, inhabited by Romance, Germanic, Slavic and Celtic peoples. While the ancient core area was already Christian, the other "pagan" areas of Europe were Christianized in the Middle Ages.
The High Middle Ages were the heyday of chivalry and the Roman-German Empire, feudal and minnesong. The population began to grow, crafts and commerce were promoted, and education was no longer exclusively a privilege of the religious profession. However, the development in the individual realms was quite different. The Crusades fall into this epoch. Later, the religious goals of the Crusades faded into the background, often in favor of power politics and economic interests.
The late Middle Ages was the time of the rising bourgeoisie of the cities and the money economy. The worst disaster in the 14. Century represented the plague, which cost the life in Europe almost half of the European population, especially in the cities. The depopulation led to uprisings and a change in social structures that weakened the chivalry in favor of the bourgeoisie and triggered some reform movements in the Catholic Church. The arts and sciences were also in the late Middle Ages on the rise. The founding of the first universities and the invention of printing in the Middle Ages helped the sciences and philosophy to a new upswing. New possibilities opened up for artists; painting, which had previously been limited to ecclesiastical motifs, has now been extended to other areas; the three-dimensionality has also been discovered by the painters.
For the transition from the Middle Ages to the modern era was essentially the invention of modern printing by 1450, the discovery of the new world by Christopher Columbus 1492 and the loss of influence of the institutionalized Catholic Church with the beginning of the Reformation responsible.